Source code for kqcircuits.simulations.simulation

# This code is part of KQCircuits
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import abc
import ast
from typing import List

from autologging import logged

from kqcircuits.defaults import default_faces
from kqcircuits.elements.airbridges.airbridge import Airbridge
from kqcircuits.elements.element import Element
from kqcircuits.elements.waveguide_composite import WaveguideComposite, Node
from kqcircuits.pya_resolver import pya
from kqcircuits.simulations.port import Port, InternalPort, EdgePort
from kqcircuits.util.geometry_helper import region_with_merged_polygons, region_with_merged_points
from kqcircuits.util.parameters import Param, pdt, add_parameters_from
from kqcircuits.simulations.export.util import find_edge_from_point_in_cell
from kqcircuits.simulations.export.util import get_enclosing_polygon
from kqcircuits.util.groundgrid import make_grid
from kqcircuits.junctions.sim import Sim

simulation_layer_dict = dict()

[docs]def get_simulation_layer_by_name(layer_name): """Returns layer info of given name. If layer doesn't exist, a new layer is created. New layers are created with data type = 0 and layer numbering starts from 1000.""" if layer_name not in simulation_layer_dict: simulation_layer_dict[layer_name] = pya.LayerInfo(len(simulation_layer_dict) + 1000, 0, layer_name) return simulation_layer_dict[layer_name]
[docs]@logged @add_parameters_from(Element) @add_parameters_from(Sim, "junction_total_length") class Simulation: """Base class for simulation geometries. Generally, this class is intended to be subclassed by a specific simulation implementation; the implementation defines the simulation geometry ad ports in `build`. A convenience class method `Simulation.from_cell` is provided to create a Simulation from an existing cell. In this case no ports will be added. Basically, 3D layout is built of substrates, which are separated from each other by vacuum boxes, however, this rule is modifiable by setting substrate and vacuum thicknesses to zero. In principle, one can stack faces on any of the imaginable surface of a substrate. If substrate or vacuum thickness is set to zero, then there can be two faces touching each other. Faces can be stacked on bottom or top surface of the substrates. Number of substrate and vacuum boxes are determined with parameters face_stack and lower_box_height: - If lower_box_height > 0, there will be a vacuum box below the lowest substrate, and the counting of faces will start from the bottom surface of the lowest substrate. Otherwise, the lowest substrate will be below the lowest vacuum box, and the counting of faces will start from the top surface of the lowest substrate. - Length of face_stack list describes how many surfaces are taken into account in the simulation. The terms in the face_stack indicate in which order the klayout faces are stacked in the 3D layout. Faces are counted from the lowest substrate surface to the highest. One can also introduce face_stack as list of lists. If a term in face_stack is a list, then all the faces given in the list are piled up on the corresponding surface in the respective order. That means, the first term in the inner list indicates the face that is closest to the surface of the substrate. One can use empty list in face_stack to leave certain surface without metallization. Heights of substrates (substrate_height) and vacuum boxes between surfaces (chip_distance) can be determined individually from bottom to top or with single value. Any of the heights can be left zero, to indicate that there is no vacuum between the substrates or substrate between the vacuum boxes. Also, the metal thickness (metal_height) can be set to zero, but that means the metal layer is modelled as infinitely thin sheet. The insulator dielectric can be set on any metal layer if non-zero dielectric_height is given. """ # The samples below show, how the layout is changed according to the parameters. Number of faces is unlimited: # # len(face_stack) = 1 len(face_stack) = 2 len(face_stack) = 2 # lower_box_height = 0 lower_box_height = 0 lower_box_height > 0 # |-------------------------| |-------------------------| |-------------------------| # | | |/////////////////////////| | | # | | |///substrate_height[1]///| | upper_box_height | # | upper_box_height | |/////////////////////////| | | # | | |----- face_stack[1] -----| |----- face_stack[1] -----| # | | | | |/////////////////////////| # |----- face_stack[0] -----| | chip_distance[0] | |///substrate_height[0]///| # |/////////////////////////| | | |/////////////////////////| # |/////////////////////////| |----- face_stack[0] -----| |----- face_stack[0] -----| # |///substrate_height[0]///| |/////////////////////////| | | # |/////////////////////////| |///substrate_height[0]///| | lower_box_height | # |/////////////////////////| |/////////////////////////| | | # |-------------------------| |-------------------------| |-------------------------| LIBRARY_NAME = None # This is needed by some methods inherited from Element. # Metadata associated with simulation ports: List[Port] # Parameters box = Param(pdt.TypeShape, "Boundary box", pya.DBox(pya.DPoint(0, 0), pya.DPoint(10000, 10000))) ground_grid_box = Param(pdt.TypeShape, "Border", pya.DBox(pya.DPoint(0, 0), pya.DPoint(10000, 10000))) with_grid = Param(pdt.TypeBoolean, "Make ground plane grid", False) name = Param(pdt.TypeString, "Name of the simulation", "Simulation") use_ports = Param(pdt.TypeBoolean, "Turn off to disable all ports (for debugging)", True) use_internal_ports = Param(pdt.TypeBoolean, "Use internal (lumped) ports. The alternative is wave ports.", True) port_size = Param(pdt.TypeDouble, "Width and height of wave ports", 400.0, unit="µm") upper_box_height = Param(pdt.TypeDouble, "Height of vacuum above top substrate", 1000.0, unit="µm") lower_box_height = Param(pdt.TypeDouble, "Height of vacuum below bottom substrate", 0, unit="µm", docstring="Set > 0 to start face counting from substrate bottom layer.") face_stack = Param(pdt.TypeList, "Face IDs on the substrate surfaces from bottom to top", ["1t1"], docstring="The parameter can be set as list of lists to enable multi-face stack-up on substrate " "surfaces. Set term to empty list to not have metal on the surface.") substrate_height = Param(pdt.TypeList, "Height of the substrates", [550.0, 375.0], unit="[µm]", docstring="The value can be scalar or list of scalars. Set as list to use individual " "substrate heights from bottom to top.") substrate_material = Param(pdt.TypeList, "Material of the substrates.", ['silicon'], docstring="Value can be string or list of strings. Use only keywords introduced in " "material_dict. Set as list to use individual materials from bottom to top.") material_dict = Param(pdt.TypeString, "Dictionary of dielectric materials", "{'silicon': {'permittivity': 11.45}}", docstring="Material property keywords follow Ansys Electromagnetics property names. " "For example 'permittivity', 'dielectric_loss_tangent', etc.") chip_distance = Param(pdt.TypeList, "Height of vacuum between two substrates", [8.0], unit="[µm]", docstring="The value can be scalar or list of scalars. Set as list to use individual chip " "distances from bottom to top.") ground_metal_height = Param(pdt.TypeDouble, "Height of the grounded metal (in Xsection tool)", 0.2, unit="µm", docstring="Only used in Xsection tool and doesn't affect the 3D model") signal_metal_height = Param(pdt.TypeDouble, "Height of the trace metal (in Xsection tool)", 0.2, unit="µm", docstring="Only used in Xsection tool and doesn't affect the 3D model") airbridge_height = Param(pdt.TypeDouble, "Height of airbridges.", 3.4, unit="µm") metal_height = Param(pdt.TypeList, "Height of metal sheet on each face.", [0.0], unit="µm") dielectric_height = Param(pdt.TypeList, "Height of insulator dielectric on each face.", [0.0], unit="µm") dielectric_material = Param(pdt.TypeList, "Material of insulator dielectric on each face.", ['silicon'], unit="µm") waveguide_length = Param(pdt.TypeDouble, "Length of waveguide stubs or distance between couplers and waveguide " "turning point", 100, unit="µm") over_etching = Param(pdt.TypeDouble, "Expansion of metal gaps (negative to shrink the gaps).", 0, unit="μm") vertical_over_etching = Param(pdt.TypeDouble, "Vertical over-etching into substrates at gaps.", 0, unit="μm") hollow_tsv = Param(pdt.TypeBoolean, "Make TSVs hollow with vacuum inside and thin metal boundary.", False) participation_sheet_distance = Param(pdt.TypeDouble, "Distance to non-model TLS interface sheet.", 0.0, unit="µm") participation_sheet_thickness = Param(pdt.TypeDouble, "Thickness of non-model TLS interface sheet.", 0.0, unit="µm") minimum_point_spacing = Param(pdt.TypeDouble, "Tolerance for merging adjacent points in polygon", 0.01, unit="µm") polygon_tolerance = Param(pdt.TypeDouble, "Tolerance for merging adjacent polygons in a layer", 0.004, unit="µm") extra_json_data = Param(pdt.TypeNone, "Extra data in dict form to store in resulting JSON", None, docstring="This field may be used to store 'virtual' parameters useful for your simulations") def __init__(self, layout, **kwargs): """Initialize a Simulation. The initializer parses parameters, creates a top cell, and then calls `` to create the simulation geometry, followed by `self.create_simulation_layers` to process the geometry so it is ready for exporting. Args: layout: the layout on which to create the simulation Keyword arguments: `**kwargs`: Any parameter can be passed as a keyword argument. In addition, `cell` can be passed as keyword argument. If `cell` is supplied, it will be used as the top cell for the simulation. Otherwise, a new cell will be created. See `Simulation.from_cell` for creating simulations from existing cells. """ self.refpoints = {} if layout is None or not isinstance(layout, pya.Layout): error_text = "Cannot create simulation with invalid or nil layout." error = ValueError(error_text) self.__log.exception(error_text, exc_info=error) raise error self.layout = layout schema = type(self).get_schema() # Apply kwargs or default value # TODO: Validation? Could reuse the validation for Element for parameter, item in schema.items(): if parameter in kwargs: setattr(self, parameter, kwargs[parameter]) else: setattr(self, parameter, item.default) =" ", "").replace(",", "__") # no spaces or commas in filenames self.ports = [] if 'cell' in kwargs: self.cell = kwargs['cell'] else: self.cell = layout.create_cell( self.layers = dict() self.create_simulation_layers()
[docs] @classmethod def from_cell(cls, cell, margin=300, grid_size=1, **kwargs): """Create a Simulation from an existing cell. Arguments: cell: existing top cell for the Simulation margin: distance (μm) to expand the simulation box (ground plane) around the bounding box of the cell If the `box` keyword argument is given, margin is ignored. grid_size: size of the simulation box will be rounded to this resolution If the `box` keyword argument is given, grid_size is ignored. `**kwargs`: any simulation parameters passed Returns: Simulation instance """ extra_kwargs = {} if 'box' not in kwargs: box = cell.dbbox().enlarge(margin, margin) if grid_size > 0: box.left = round(box.left / grid_size) * grid_size box.right = round(box.right / grid_size) * grid_size box.bottom = round(box.bottom / grid_size) * grid_size = round( / grid_size) * grid_size extra_kwargs['box'] = box return cls(cell.layout(), cell=cell, **kwargs, **extra_kwargs)
[docs] @abc.abstractmethod def build(self): """Build simulation geometry. This method is to be overridden, and the overriding method should create the geometry to be simulated and add any ports to `self.ports`. """ return
# Inherit specific methods from Element get_schema = classmethod(Element.get_schema.__func__) face = Element.face insert_cell = Element.insert_cell get_refpoints = Element.get_refpoints add_element = Element.add_element get_layer = Element.get_layer pcell_params_by_name = Element.pcell_params_by_name
[docs] def face_stack_list_of_lists(self): """Return self.face_stack forced to be list of lists""" return [f if isinstance(f, list) else [f] for f in self.face_stack]
[docs] @staticmethod def ith_value(list_or_constant, i): """ Helper function to return value from list or constant corresponding to the ordinal number i. Too short lists are extended by duplicating the last value of the list. """ if isinstance(list_or_constant, list): if i < len(list_or_constant): return list_or_constant[i] # return ith term of the list return list_or_constant[-1] # return last term of the list return list_or_constant # return constant value
[docs] def face_z_levels(self): """ Returns dictionary of z-levels. The dictionary can be used either with integer or string key values: Integer keys return surface z-levels in ascending order (including domain boundary bottom and top). String keys (key = face_id) return the three z-levels of the face (metal bottom, metal-dielectric interface, dielectric top) The level z=0 is at lowest substrate top. """ # Terms below z=0 level substrate_bottom = -float(self.ith_value(self.substrate_height, 0)) z_levels = [substrate_bottom - self.lower_box_height] if self.lower_box_height > 0 else [] z_levels += [substrate_bottom, 0.0] # Terms above z=0 level remaining_substrates = (len(self.face_stack) + 2 - len(z_levels)) // 2 for s in range(remaining_substrates): z_levels.append(z_levels[-1] + float(self.ith_value(self.chip_distance, s))) z_levels.append(z_levels[-1] + float(self.ith_value(self.substrate_height, s + 1))) if len(z_levels) < len(self.face_stack) + 2: z_levels.append(z_levels[-1] + self.upper_box_height) # Create dictionary of z-levels including integer keys and face_id keys z_dict = dict(enumerate(z_levels)) z_dict[-1] = z_levels[-1] for i, face_ids in enumerate(self.face_stack_list_of_lists()): sign = (-1) ** (i + int(self.lower_box_height > 0)) base_z = z_levels[i + 1] metal_height = self.ith_value(self.metal_height, i) dielectric_height = self.ith_value(self.dielectric_height, i) for j, face_id in enumerate(face_ids): metal_z = base_z + sign * float(self.ith_value(metal_height, j)) dielectric_z = metal_z + sign * float(self.ith_value(dielectric_height, j)) z_dict[face_id] = [base_z, metal_z, dielectric_z] base_z = dielectric_z return z_dict
[docs] def merged_region_from_layer(self, face_id, layer_name, expansion=0.0): """ Returns a `Region` containing all geometry from a specified layer merged together """ face_layers = default_faces[face_id] if face_id in default_faces else dict() if layer_name in face_layers: return region_with_merged_polygons( pya.Region(self.cell.begin_shapes_rec(self.layout.layer(face_layers[layer_name]))), tolerance=self.polygon_tolerance / self.layout.dbu, expansion=expansion / self.layout.dbu) return pya.Region()
[docs] def insert_layer(self, region, layer_name, **params): """Merges points in the `region` and inserts the result in a target layer. The params are forwarded to the 'self.layers' dictionary. """ if region.is_empty(): return # ignore the layer layer = get_simulation_layer_by_name(layer_name) self.cell.shapes(self.layout.layer(layer)).insert(region) self.layers[layer_name] = {'layer': layer.layer, **params}
[docs] @staticmethod def add_layer_to_splitter(splitter, region, layer_name, **params): """Add layer to the splitter, which splits the region into different z-levels. The params are forwarded to the 'self.layers' dictionary. Before calling first time, the splitter should be set as empty splitter, which is a list of empty dictionary and empty list, that is [dict(), []]. """ if region.is_empty(): return # ignore the layer # the first term in splitter is dictionary of parameters splitter[0][layer_name] = params # the second term in splitter is list of tuples containing (reg, list of keys) region_and_keys = [] left_region = region.dup() for reg, keys in splitter[1]: intersection = reg & region if not intersection.is_empty(): left_region -= intersection subtraction = reg - intersection if not subtraction.is_empty(): region_and_keys.append((subtraction, keys)) region_and_keys.append((intersection, keys + [layer_name])) else: region_and_keys.append((reg, keys)) if not left_region.is_empty(): region_and_keys.append((left_region, [layer_name])) splitter[1] = region_and_keys
[docs] def insert_splitter_layers(self, splitter, z0): """Inserts the layers in the splitter to the 'self.layers' dictionary. Each layer are split into sub-layers by their z-level. Parameter 'z0' is the base z-level for layer stack-up.""" for key, params in splitter[0].items(): z_region_map = dict() for reg, keys in splitter[1]: if key in keys: # round z-value to avoid differences due to floating point number inaccuracy z = round(sum(splitter[0][i].get('thickness', 0.0) for i in keys[0: keys.index(key)]), 12) if z not in z_region_map: z_region_map[z] = pya.Region() z_region_map[z] += reg # Insert combined region if there are multiple levels if len(z_region_map) > 1: region = pya.Region() for reg in z_region_map.values(): region += reg self.cell.shapes(self.layout.layer(get_simulation_layer_by_name(key))).insert(region.merged()) # Insert split parts of the region and add layer for i, (z, reg) in enumerate(z_region_map.items()): layer_name = key + f'_{i}' if len(z_region_map) > 1 else key layer = get_simulation_layer_by_name(layer_name) self.cell.shapes(self.layout.layer(layer)).insert(reg.merged()) self.layers[layer_name] = {'layer': layer.layer, 'z': z0 + z, **params}
[docs] def insert_layers_between_faces(self, i, opp_i, layer_name, **params): """Helper function to be used to produce indium bumps and TSVs""" z = self.face_z_levels() mps = self.minimum_point_spacing / self.layout.dbu face_stack = self.face_stack_list_of_lists() box_region = pya.Region( sum_region = pya.Region() for face_id in face_stack[i]: region = region_with_merged_points(self.merged_region_from_layer(face_id, layer_name) & box_region, mps) if region.is_empty(): continue sum_region += region if 0 <= opp_i < len(face_stack): for opp_id in face_stack[opp_i]: common_region = region & region_with_merged_points( self.merged_region_from_layer(opp_id, layer_name) & box_region, mps) if common_region.is_empty(): continue if f'{opp_id}_{face_id}_{layer_name}' not in self.layers: # if statement is to avoid duplicates self.insert_layer(common_region, f'{face_id}_{opp_id}_{layer_name}', z=z[face_id][1], thickness=z[opp_id][1] - z[face_id][1], **params) region -= common_region if region.is_empty(): break if not region.is_empty(): self.insert_layer(region, face_id + '_' + layer_name, z=z[face_id][1], thickness=z[opp_i + 1] - z[face_id][1], **params) return sum_region
[docs] def create_simulation_layers(self): """Create the layers used for simulation export. Based on any geometry defined on the relevant lithography layers. This method is called from `__init__` after `build`, and should not be called directly. Geometry is added to layers created specifically for simulation purposes. The layer numbers, z-levels, thicknesses, materials, and other properties are stored in 'self.layers' parameter. In the simulation-specific layers, all geometry has been merged and converted to simple polygons, that is, polygons without holes. """ z = self.face_z_levels() mps = self.minimum_point_spacing / self.layout.dbu face_stack = self.face_stack_list_of_lists() for i, face_ids in enumerate(face_stack): sign = (-1) ** (i + int(self.lower_box_height > 0)) splitter = [dict(), []] dielectric_material = self.ith_value(self.dielectric_material, i) # insert TSVs and indium bumps tsv_params = {'edge_material': 'pec'} if self.hollow_tsv else {'material': 'pec'} tsv_region = self.insert_layers_between_faces(i, i - sign, "through_silicon_via", **tsv_params) self.insert_layers_between_faces(i, i + sign, "indium_bump", material='pec') for j, face_id in enumerate(face_ids): ground_box_region = pya.Region( metal_gap_region = self.merged_region_from_layer(face_id, "base_metal_gap_wo_grid", self.over_etching) metal_add_region = self.merged_region_from_layer(face_id, "base_metal_addition", -self.over_etching) lithography_region = metal_gap_region - metal_add_region if lithography_region.is_empty(): signal_region = pya.Region() ground_region = ground_box_region.dup() else: signal_region = ground_box_region - lithography_region # Find the ground plane and subtract it from the simulation area # First, add all polygons touching any of the edges ground_region = pya.Region() for edge in ground_box_region.edges(): ground_region += signal_region.interacting(edge) # Now, remove all edge polygons which are also a port if self.use_ports: for port in self.ports: if self.face_ids[port.face] == face_id: if hasattr(port, 'ground_location'): v_unit = port.signal_location-port.ground_location v_unit = v_unit/v_unit.abs() signal_loc = (port.signal_location+mps*v_unit).to_itype(self.layout.dbu) ground_region -= ground_region.interacting(pya.Edge(signal_loc, signal_loc)) ground_loc = (port.ground_location-mps*v_unit).to_itype(self.layout.dbu) ground_region += signal_region.interacting(pya.Edge(ground_loc, ground_loc)) else: signal_loc = port.signal_location.to_itype(self.layout.dbu) ground_region -= ground_region.interacting(pya.Edge(signal_loc, signal_loc)) ground_region.merge() signal_region -= ground_region dielectric_region = ground_box_region - self.merged_region_from_layer(face_id, "dielectric_etch") # Merge points of each region to optimize the simulations. Subtract TSV region. signal_region = region_with_merged_points(signal_region, mps) - tsv_region ground_region = region_with_merged_points(ground_region, mps) - tsv_region dielectric_region = region_with_merged_points(dielectric_region, mps) - tsv_region gap_region = ground_box_region - signal_region - ground_region if self.with_grid: ground_region -= self.ground_grid_region(face_id) # Insert signal, ground, and dielectric layers to model via splitter if j == 0 and self.vertical_over_etching > 0.0: self.add_layer_to_splitter(splitter, ground_box_region - signal_region - ground_region, face_id + "_etch", thickness=-sign * self.vertical_over_etching) metal_thickness = z[face_id][1] - z[face_id][0] self.add_layer_to_splitter(splitter, signal_region, face_id + "_signal", thickness=metal_thickness, material='pec') self.add_layer_to_splitter(splitter, ground_region, face_id + "_ground", thickness=metal_thickness, material='pec') dielectric_thickness = z[face_id][2] - z[face_id][1] if dielectric_thickness != 0.0: self.add_layer_to_splitter(splitter, dielectric_region, face_id + "_dielectric", thickness=dielectric_thickness, material=self.ith_value(dielectric_material, j)) # Insert gap layer only on the first face of the stack-up (no material) if j == 0: gap_z = z[face_id][0] - sign * self.vertical_over_etching self.insert_layer(gap_region, face_id + "_gap", z=gap_z, thickness=z[face_id][1] - gap_z) # Insert airbridges bridge_z = sign * self.airbridge_height self.insert_layer(self.merged_region_from_layer(face_id, "airbridge_flyover") & ground_box_region, face_id + "_airbridge_flyover", z=z[face_id][1] + bridge_z, thickness=0.0, material='pec') self.insert_layer(self.merged_region_from_layer(face_id, "airbridge_pads") & ground_box_region, face_id + "_airbridge_pads", z=z[face_id][1], thickness=bridge_z, material='pec') # Insert participation layers (no material) if j == 0 and self.participation_sheet_distance + self.participation_sheet_thickness > 0.0: self.insert_layer(signal_region + ground_region, face_id + "_layerMA", z=z[face_id][1] + sign * self.participation_sheet_distance, thickness=sign * self.participation_sheet_thickness) self.insert_layer(signal_region + ground_region, face_id + "_layerMS", z=z[face_id][0] - sign * self.participation_sheet_distance, thickness=-sign * self.participation_sheet_thickness) self.insert_layer(ground_box_region - signal_region - ground_region, face_id + "_layerSA", z=z[face_id][0] + sign * self.participation_sheet_distance, thickness=sign * self.participation_sheet_thickness) self.insert_splitter_layers(splitter, z[i + 1]) # Insert substrates for i in range(int(self.lower_box_height > 0), len(face_stack) + 1, 2): # faces around the substrate faces = [] if i < len(face_stack): faces += face_stack[i] if i > 0: faces += face_stack[i-1] # find layers to be subtracted from substrate layers = ['etch', 'through_silicon_via'] subtract = [k for k in self.layers if any(t in k for t in layers) and any(t in k for t in faces)] # insert substrate layer name = 'substrate' if i < 2 else f'substrate_{i // 2}' self.layers[name] = {'z': z[i], 'thickness': z[i + 1] - z[i], 'material': self.ith_value(self.substrate_material, i // 2), **({'subtract': subtract} if subtract else dict())} # Insert vacuum subtract = [n for n, v in self.layers.items() if v.get('material', None) is not None and v.get('thickness', 0.0) != 0.0] self.layers['vacuum'] = {'z': z[0], 'thickness': z[-1] - z[0], 'material': 'vacuum', 'subtract': subtract}
[docs] def ground_grid_region(self, face_id): """Returns region of ground grid for the given face id.""" box = self.ground_grid_box & # restrict self.ground_grid_box inside grid_area = box * (1 / self.layout.dbu) protection = self.merged_region_from_layer(face_id, "ground_grid_avoidance") grid_mag_factor = 1 return make_grid(grid_area, protection, grid_step=10 * (1 / self.layout.dbu) * grid_mag_factor, grid_size=5 * (1 / self.layout.dbu) * grid_mag_factor)
[docs] def produce_waveguide_to_port(self, location, towards, port_nr, side=None, use_internal_ports=None, waveguide_length=None, term1=0, turn_radius=None, a=None, b=None, over_etching=None, airbridge=False, face=0): """Create a waveguide connection from some `location` to a port, and add the corresponding port to `simulation.ports`. Arguments: location (pya.DPoint): Point where the waveguide connects to the simulation towards (pya.DPoint): Point that sets the direction of the waveguide. The waveguide will start from `location` and go towards `towards` port_nr (int): Port index for the simulation engine starting from 1 side (str): Indicate on which edge the port should be located. Ignored for internal ports. Must be one of `left`, `right`, `top` or `bottom` use_internal_ports (bool, optional): if True, ports will be inside the simulation. If False, ports will be brought out to an edge of the box, determined by `side`. Defaults to the value of the `use_internal_ports` parameter waveguide_length (float, optional): length of the waveguide (μm), used only for internal ports Defaults to the value of the `waveguide_length` parameter term1 (float, optional): Termination gap (μm) at `location`. Default 0 turn_radius (float, optional): Turn radius of the waveguide. Not relevant for internal ports. Defaults to the value of the `r` parameter a (float, optional): Center conductor width. Defaults to the value of the `a` parameter b (float, optional): Conductor gap width. Defaults to the value of the `b` parameter over_etching (float, optional): Expansion of gaps. Defaults to the value of the `over_etching` parameter airbridge (bool, optional): if True, an airbridge will be inserted at `location`. Default False. face: face to place waveguide and port on. Either 0 (default) or 1, for bottom or top face. """ waveguide_safety_overlap = 0.005 # Extend waveguide by this amount to avoid gaps due to nm-scale rounding # errors waveguide_gap_extension = 1 # Extend gaps beyond waveguides into ground plane to define the ground port edge if turn_radius is None: turn_radius = self.r if a is None: a = self.a if b is None: b = self.b if over_etching is None: over_etching = self.over_etching if use_internal_ports is None: use_internal_ports = self.use_internal_ports if waveguide_length is None: waveguide_length = self.waveguide_length # Create a new path in the direction of path but with length waveguide_length direction = towards - location direction = direction / direction.length() waveguide_a = a waveguide_b = b # First node may be an airbridge if airbridge: first_node = Node(location, Airbridge, a=a, b=b) waveguide_a = Airbridge.bridge_width waveguide_b = Airbridge.bridge_width / Element.a * Element.b else: first_node = Node(location) if use_internal_ports: signal_point = location + (waveguide_length + over_etching) * direction ground_point = location + (waveguide_length + a - 3 * over_etching) * direction nodes = [ first_node, Node(signal_point + waveguide_safety_overlap * direction), ] port = InternalPort(port_nr, *self.etched_line(signal_point, ground_point), face=face) extension_nodes = [ Node(ground_point), Node(ground_point + waveguide_gap_extension * direction) ] else: corner_point = location + (waveguide_length + turn_radius) * direction if side is None: raise ValueError("Waveport side in the arguments of `produce_waveguide_to_ports` is not specified") port_edge_point = { "left": pya.DPoint(, corner_point.y), "right": pya.DPoint(, corner_point.y), "top": pya.DPoint(corner_point.x,, "bottom": pya.DPoint(corner_point.x, }[side] nodes = [ first_node, Node(corner_point), Node(port_edge_point), ] port = EdgePort(port_nr, port_edge_point, face=face) tl = self.add_element(WaveguideComposite, nodes=nodes, r=turn_radius, term1=term1, term2=0, a=waveguide_a, b=waveguide_b, face_ids=[self.face_ids[face]] ) self.cell.insert(pya.DCellInstArray(tl.cell_index(), pya.DTrans())) feedline_length = tl.length() if use_internal_ports: port_end_piece = self.add_element(WaveguideComposite, nodes=extension_nodes, a=a, b=b, term1=a-4*over_etching, term2=0, face_ids=[self.face_ids[face]] ) self.cell.insert(pya.DCellInstArray(port_end_piece.cell_index(), pya.DTrans())) else: port.deembed_len = feedline_length self.ports.append(port)
[docs] def get_parameters(self): """Return dictionary with all parameters and their values.""" return {param: getattr(self, param) for param in type(self).get_schema()}
[docs] def etched_line(self, p1: pya.DPoint, p2: pya.DPoint): """ Return the end points of line segment after extending it at both ends by amount of over_etching. This function must be used when initializing InternalPort. Arguments: p1 (pya.DPoint): first end of line segment p2 (pya.DPoint): second end of line segment Returns: [p1 - d, p2 + d]: list of extended end points. """ d = (self.over_etching / p1.distance(p2)) * (p2 - p1) return [p1 - d, p2 + d]
[docs] def get_port_data(self): """ Return the port data in dictionary form and add the information of port polygon. Includes following: * Items from `Port` instance * polygon: point coordinates of the port polygon * signal_edge: point coordinates of the signal edge * ground_edge: point coordinates of the ground edge """ simulation = self z = self.face_z_levels() # gather port data port_data = [] if simulation.use_ports: for port in simulation.ports: # Basic data from Port p_data = port.as_dict() face_id = self.face_ids[port.face] # Define a 3D polygon for each port if isinstance(port, EdgePort): port_z0 = max(z[face_id][0] - simulation.port_size / 2, z[0]) port_z1 = min(z[face_id][0] + simulation.port_size / 2, z[-1]) # Determine which edge this port is on if (port.signal_location.x == or port.signal_location.x == port_y0 = max(port.signal_location.y - simulation.port_size / 2, port_y1 = min(port.signal_location.y + simulation.port_size / 2, p_data['polygon'] = [ [port.signal_location.x, port_y0, port_z0], [port.signal_location.x, port_y1, port_z0], [port.signal_location.x, port_y1, port_z1], [port.signal_location.x, port_y0, port_z1] ] elif (port.signal_location.y == or port.signal_location.y == port_x0 = max(port.signal_location.x - simulation.port_size / 2, port_x1 = min(port.signal_location.x + simulation.port_size / 2, p_data['polygon'] = [ [port_x0, port.signal_location.y, port_z0], [port_x1, port.signal_location.y, port_z0], [port_x1, port.signal_location.y, port_z1], [port_x0, port.signal_location.y, port_z1] ] else: raise ValueError(f"Port {port.number} is an EdgePort but not on the edge of the simulation box") elif isinstance(port, InternalPort): if hasattr(port, 'ground_location'): try: _, _, signal_edge = find_edge_from_point_in_cell( simulation.cell, # simulation.get_layer(port.signal_layer, port.face), self.layout.layer(get_simulation_layer_by_name(face_id + '_' + port.signal_layer)), port.signal_location, simulation.layout.dbu) _, _, ground_edge = find_edge_from_point_in_cell( simulation.cell, # simulation.get_layer('simulation_ground', port.face), self.layout.layer(get_simulation_layer_by_name(face_id + '_ground')), port.ground_location, simulation.layout.dbu) port_z = z[face_id][0] p_data['polygon'] = get_enclosing_polygon( [[signal_edge.x1, signal_edge.y1, port_z], [signal_edge.x2, signal_edge.y2, port_z], [ground_edge.x1, ground_edge.y1, port_z], [ground_edge.x2, ground_edge.y2, port_z]]) p_data['signal_edge'] = ((signal_edge.x1, signal_edge.y1, port_z), (signal_edge.x2, signal_edge.y2, port_z)) p_data['ground_edge'] = ((ground_edge.x1, ground_edge.y1, port_z), (ground_edge.x2, ground_edge.y2, port_z)) except ValueError as e: self.__log.warning('Unable to create polygon for port {}, because either signal or ground ' 'edge is not found.'.format(port.number)) self.__log.debug(e) else: raise ValueError("Port {} has unsupported port class {}".format(port.number, type(port).__name__)) # Change signal and ground location from DVector to list and add z-component as third term for location in ['signal_location', 'ground_location']: if location in p_data: p_data[location] = [p_data[location].x, p_data[location].y, z[face_id][0]] port_data.append(p_data) return port_data
[docs] def get_simulation_data(self): """ Return the simulation data in dictionary form. Contains following: * gds_file: name of gds file to include geometry layers, * units: length unit in simulations, 'um', * layers: geometry data, * material_dict: Dictionary of dielectric materials, * box: Boundary box, * ports: Port data in dictionary form, see self.get_port_data(), * parameters: All Simulation class parameters in dictionary form, """ # check that materials are defined in material_dict materials = [layer['material'] for layer in self.layers.values() if 'material' in layer] mater_dict = ast.literal_eval(self.material_dict) if isinstance(self.material_dict, str) else self.material_dict for name in materials: if name not in mater_dict and name not in ['pec', 'vacuum', None]: raise ValueError("Material '{}' used but not defined in Simulation.material_dict".format(name)) return { 'gds_file': + '.gds', 'units': 'um', # hardcoded assumption in multiple places 'layers': self.layers, 'material_dict': mater_dict, 'box':, 'ports': self.get_port_data(), 'parameters': self.get_parameters(), }
[docs] def get_layers(self): """ Returns simulation layer numbers in list. Only return layers that are in use. """ return [pya.LayerInfo(d['layer'], 0) for d in self.layers.values() if 'layer' in d]
[docs] @staticmethod def delete_instances(cell, name, index=(0,)): """ Allows for deleting a sub-cell of the top 'cell' with a specific 'name'. The 'index' argument can be used to access more than one sub-cell sharing the same 'name', but with different appended 'index' to the 'name'. """ for i in index: index_name = f'${i}' if i > 0 else '' cell_to_be_deleted = cell.layout().cell(f'{name}{index_name}') if cell_to_be_deleted is not None: cell_to_be_deleted.delete()