This section explains some things about the KQCircuits code architecture.


Every KQCircuits object that can be placed in a KLayout layout is derived from Element, that in turn is derived from PCellDeclarationHelper. There exist also more specific base classes such as Chip, Qubit or TestStructure.

digraph { rankdir="LR" Element [href="../api/kqcircuits.elements.element.html", target="_top"] Qubit [href="../api/kqcircuits.qubits.qubit.html", target="_top"] Junction [href="../api/kqcircuits.junctions.junction.html", target="_top"] Airbridge [href="../api/kqcircuits.elements.airbridges.airbridge.html", target="_top"] TestStructure [href="../api/kqcircuits.test_structures.test_structure.html", target="_top"] FlipChipConnector [href="../api/kqcircuits.elements.flip_chip_connectors.flip_chip_connector.html", target="_top"] Fluxline [href="../api/kqcircuits.elements.fluxlines.fluxline.html", target="_top"] Marker [href="../api/kqcircuits.elements.markers.marker.html", target="_top"] Tsv [href="../api/kqcircuits.elements.tsvs.tsv.html", target="_top"] ## Base classes Element -> Qubit Element -> Junction -> Squid Element -> Airbridge Element -> TestStructure Element -> FlipChipConnector Element -> Fluxline Element -> Marker Element -> Tsv ## Cocrete base classes node [shape="rect"] Chip [href="../api/kqcircuits.chips.chip.html", target="_top"] Element -> Chip ## Concrete examples node [color="green"] WaveguideCoplanar [href="../api/kqcircuits.elements.waveguide_coplanar.html", target="_top"] Demo [href="../api/kqcircuits.chips.demo.html", target="_top"] DemoTwoface [href="../api/kqcircuits.chips.demo_twoface.html", target="_top"] Swissmon [href="../api/kqcircuits.qubits.swissmon.html", target="_top"] Manhattan [href="../api/kqcircuits.junctions.manhattan.html", target="_top"] AirbridgeRectangular [href="../api/kqcircuits.elements.airbridges.airbridge_rectangular.html", target="_top"] FluxlineStraight [href="../api/kqcircuits.elements.fluxlines.fluxline_straight.html", target="_top"] MarkerStandard [href="../api/kqcircuits.elements.markers.marker_standard.html", target="_top"] AirbridgeDC [href="../api/kqcircuits.test_structures.airbridge_dc.html", target="_top"] FlipChipConnectorDc [href="../api/kqcircuits.elements.flip_chip_connectors.flip_chip_connector_dc.html", target="_top"] TsvEllipse [href="../api/kqcircuits.elements.tsvs.tsv_ellipse.html", target="_top"] Element -> WaveguideCoplanar Chip -> Demo Chip -> DemoTwoface Qubit -> Swissmon Squid -> Manhattan Airbridge -> AirbridgeRectangular Fluxline -> FluxlineStraight Marker -> MarkerStandard TestStructure -> AirbridgeDC FlipChipConnector -> FlipChipConnectorDc Tsv -> TsvEllipse }

Class Inheritance Diagram

All base classes (black) are shown, abstracts are ovals, concretes are rectangles. Only one example “leaf” class (green) is shown for most base classes. The class hierarchy is relatively flat as PCells make it more natural to use composition than inheritance. For simplicity we don’t use multiple inheritance in this project, if it is ever used keep the Element as the first parent.

Elements in KQCircuits are PCells, see KLayout documentation for more information on PCells. Due to how KLayout handles PCells, the elements (i.e. classes inheriting from Element) in KQCircuits should not be treated as normal Python classes. The following things should be taken into account when writing new elements:

  1. PCells in Python code have corresponding objects living in the C++-side of KLayout. This means that you should not instantiate any elements like a normal class, but instead use the add_element or create method of the element, which are wrappers for KLayout’s layout.create_cell. The C++-object is created properly only if you use these wrappers (or if a new PCell is added to a layout in KLayout GUI).

  2. In code add_element or insert_cell is the preferred method of adding a new (sub)cell. The create method is a @classmethod that is useful when adding a top level PCell or when not calling from another PCell.

  3. When a new PCell instance is created, or when the parameters are changed in KLayout GUI, the produce_impl method of the PCell is called. For KQC elements produce_impl calls the build method, which is where you “build” the element. When produce_impl is called, the instance variables of the PCell are set to new values based on the given parameters. The PCell instance is then created or updated based on these new parameter values.

PCell parameters

The PCell parameters for KQCircuits elements are plain class attributes defined with the Param descriptor class. These can be used like normal instance variables. The values of these parameters can be set from the KLayout GUI, or in the create or add_element methods in code. The parameters of a class are automatically merged with its parent’s parameters (see, so an instance will contain the parameters of all its ancestors in the inheritance hierarchy. When building hierarchical elements the parameter values appropriate for a sub-element are transparently passed to it from the caller with add_element or insert_cell.

It is possible to change inherited parameters default values in a per class basis using the default_parameter_values section of the configuration file. Technically this creates a copy of the Param object with different default value.

The add_parameters_from or add_parameter decorator functions add some other class’ parameter(s) to the decorated class so there is no need to re-define the same parameter in multiple places. They are like normal parameters to all intents and purposes. Note that these parameters will be inherited by descendants of the decorated class. Technically these are like references to the same Param object.

With add_parameters_from it is also possible to add some other class’ parameter with a changed default value. This is practically identical to setting a default value for the decorated class using default_parameter_values in the configuration file. Technically, new parameter(s) are created with the updated values.


# Get two parameters form 'OtherClass'
@add_parameters_from(OtherClass, "param_a", "param_b")
class MyClass():

# Get all parameters form 'OtherClass'
@add_parameters_from(OtherClass, "*")  # or just @add_parameters_from(OtherClass)
class MyClass():

# Get all parameters form 'OtherClass' except one
@add_parameters_from(OtherClass, "*", "param_a")
class MyClass():

# Get and change default values of several parameters at once
@add_parameters_from(OtherClass, "param_a", "param_b", param_c=42, param_d=43)
class MyClass():

# Get all parameters form 'OtherClass' but override one
@add_parameters_from(OtherClass, "*", param_b=41)
class MyClass():

The add_parameter decorator is less practical as it only allows adding parameters one-by-one, but it is possible to change all the properties of a parameter with it, not only the default value but also hidden, choices, unit or even description. The syntax is also a bit different:

@add_parameter(OtherClass, "param_a", hidden=True, choices=[...], ...)

Note that decorators are applied in “reverse-order”, i.e. first the class is defined and then from bottom-up the decorators are called. This is also the reason why decorators may override Param definitions in the class’ body but not the other way around.


The PCells in KQCircuits are divided into libraries such as Element Library, Chip Library or Junction Library. Each library contains a base class for all other classes in the library, for example all classes in the Chip Library inherit from the Chip base class. Each base class contains LIBRARY_NAME and LIBRARY_DESCRIPTION constants, so that these are available for all derived classes.

digraph Libraries { "Element Library" -> {"Junction Library", "Qubit Library", "Chip Library", "TestStructure Library"} "Junction Library" -> "TestStructure Library" -> "Chip Library" "Junction Library" -> "Qubit Library" -> "Chip Library" }

Library Dependency Diagram

Libraries have a strict dependency order defined in kqc_library_names in KLayout loads them in this order. Classes can not use other classes from other libraries downstream in the dependency graph.

The elements in these libraries are automatically discovered and registered to KLayout by It finds all classes in KQCircuits directory which inherit from PCellDeclarationHelper, and uses their LIBRARY_NAME attribute to register them to the correct library. Note that this requires all element classes to follow PascalCase naming convention, as required by PEP-8.

pya resolver

Any KLayout functions/classes/etc. should be imported using pya_resolver (see For example, you should write from kqcircuits.pya_resolver import pya, and not import pya or import klayout.db. This ensures that KQCircuits works both with KLayout GUI and the standalone module.