Source code for kqcircuits.elements.waveguide_coplanar

# This code is part of KQCircuits
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import math

from kqcircuits.pya_resolver import pya
from kqcircuits.util.parameters import Param, pdt, add_parameters_from

from kqcircuits.elements.element import Element
from kqcircuits.elements.waveguide_coplanar_straight import WaveguideCoplanarStraight
from kqcircuits.elements.waveguide_coplanar_curved import WaveguideCoplanarCurved

[docs]@add_parameters_from(WaveguideCoplanarStraight, "add_metal", "ground_grid_in_trace") class WaveguideCoplanar(Element): """The PCell declaration for an arbitrary coplanar waveguide. Coplanar waveguide defined by the width of the center conductor and gap. It can follow any segmented lines with predefined bending radios. It actually consists of straight and bent PCells. Termination lengths are lengths of extra ground gaps for opened transmission lines The ``path`` parameter defines the waypoints of the waveguide. When a DPath is supplied, the waypoints can be edited in the KLayout GUI with the Partial tool. Alternatively, a list of DPoint can be supplied, in which case the guiding shape is not visible in the GUI. This is useful for code-generated (sub)cells where graphical editing is not possible or desired. Warning: Arbitrary angle bents can have very small gaps between bends and straight segments due to precision of arithmetic. Small positive value of corner_safety_overlap can avoid these gaps. .. MARKERS_FOR_PNG 20,-10 50,0 """ path = Param(pdt.TypeShape, "TLine", pya.DPath([pya.DPoint(0, 0), pya.DPoint(100, 0)], 0)) term1 = Param(pdt.TypeDouble, "Termination length start", 0, unit="μm") term2 = Param(pdt.TypeDouble, "Termination length end", 0, unit="μm") corner_safety_overlap = Param( pdt.TypeDouble, "Extend straight sections near corners", 0.001, unit="μm", docstring="Extend straight sections near corners by this amount (μm) to ensure all sections overlap", )
[docs] def can_create_from_shape_impl(self): return self.shape.is_path()
[docs] def parameters_from_shape_impl(self): points = [pya.DPoint(point * self.layout.dbu) for point in self.shape.each_point()] self.path = pya.DPath(points, 1)
[docs] def transformation_from_shape_impl(self): # pylint: disable=no-self-use return pya.Trans()
[docs] def produce_waveguide(self): if isinstance(self.path, list): points = [pya.DPoint(p) if isinstance(p, pya.DVector) else p for p in self.path] else: points = list(self.path.each_point()) if len(points) < 2: self.raise_error_on_cell( "Need at least 2 points for a waveguide.", points[0] if len(points) == 1 else pya.DPoint() ) # distance between points[0] and beginning of the straight last_cut_dist = 0.0 if self.term1 == 0 else -self.corner_safety_overlap # For each segment except the last for i in range(0, len(points) - 2): # Check if straight can fit between points[i] and points[i + 1] v1, _, alpha1, alpha2, corner_pos = self.get_corner_data(points[i], points[i + 1], points[i + 2], self.r) alpha = (alpha2 - alpha1 + math.pi) % (2 * math.pi) - math.pi # turn angle (between -pi and pi) in radians # distance between points[i + 1] and beginning of the straight cut_dist = self.r * math.tan(abs(alpha) / 2) - self.corner_safety_overlap straight_length = v1.length() - last_cut_dist - cut_dist if straight_length < 0: self.raise_error_on_cell( "Straight segment cannot fit. Try decreasing the turn radius.", points[i] + v1 / 2 ) # Straight segment before corner if straight_length > self.corner_safety_overlap: cell_straight = self.add_element(WaveguideCoplanarStraight, l=straight_length) start_point = points[i] + last_cut_dist / v1.length() * v1 transf = pya.DCplxTrans(1, math.degrees(alpha1), False, start_point) self.insert_cell(cell_straight, transf) # Curved segment at the corner if 2 * cut_dist >= self.corner_safety_overlap: cell_curved = self.add_element(WaveguideCoplanarCurved, alpha=alpha) transf = pya.DCplxTrans(1, math.degrees(alpha1) + (90 if alpha < 0 else -90), False, corner_pos) self.insert_cell(cell_curved, transf) # Prepare for next iteration last_cut_dist = cut_dist # Check if straight can fit between the last two points v1 = points[-1] - points[-2] cut_dist = 0.0 if self.term2 == 0 else -self.corner_safety_overlap straight_length = v1.length() - last_cut_dist - cut_dist if straight_length < 0: self.raise_error_on_cell( "Straight segment cannot fit. Try decreasing the turn radius.", points[-2] + v1 / 2 ) # Straight segment at the end if straight_length > self.corner_safety_overlap: subcell = self.add_element(WaveguideCoplanarStraight, l=straight_length) start_point = points[-2] + last_cut_dist / v1.length() * v1 transf = pya.DCplxTrans(1, math.degrees(math.atan2(v1.y, v1.x)), False, start_point) self.insert_cell(subcell, transf) # Termination before the first segment WaveguideCoplanar.produce_end_termination(self, points[1], points[0], self.term1) self.add_port("a", points[0], points[0] - points[1]) # Terminate the end WaveguideCoplanar.produce_end_termination(self, points[-2], points[-1], self.term2) self.add_port("b", points[-1], points[-1] - points[-2])
[docs] def build(self): self.produce_waveguide()
[docs] @staticmethod def get_corner_data(point1, point2, point3, r): """Returns data needed to create a curved waveguide at path corner. Args: point1: point before corner point2: corner point point3: point after corner r: curve radius Returns: A tuple (``v1``, ``v2``, ``alpha1``, ``alpha2``, ``corner_pos``), where * ``v1``: the vector (`point2` - `point1`) * ``v2``: the vector (`point3` - `point2`) * ``alpha1``: angle between `v1` and positive x-axis * ``alpha2``: angle between `v2` and positive x-axis * ``corner_pos``: position where the curved waveguide should be placed """ v1 = point2 - point1 v2 = point3 - point2 alpha1 = math.atan2(v1.y, v1.x) alpha2 = math.atan2(v2.y, v2.x) alpha = (alpha2 - alpha1 + math.pi) % (2 * math.pi) - math.pi # turn angle (between -pi and pi) in radians alphacorner = alpha1 + (alpha + math.pi) / 2 # corner middle angle plus 90 degrees distcorner = (r if alpha > 0 else -r) / math.cos(alpha / 2) corner_pos = point2 + pya.DVector(math.cos(alphacorner) * distcorner, math.sin(alphacorner) * distcorner) return v1, v2, alpha1, alpha2, corner_pos
[docs] @staticmethod def produce_end_termination(elem, point_1, point_2, term_len, face_index=0): """Produces termination for a waveguide. The termination consists of a rectangular polygon in the metal gap layer, and grid avoidance around it. One edge of the polygon is centered at point_2, and the polygon extends to length "term_len" in the direction of (point_2 - point_1). Args: elem: Element from which the waveguide parameters for the termination are taken point_1: DPoint before point_2, used only to determine the direction point_2: DPoint after which termination is produced term_len (double): termination length, assumed positive face_index (int): face index of the face in elem where the termination is created """ a = elem.a b = elem.b v = (point_2 - point_1) * (1 / point_1.distance(point_2)) u = pya.DTrans.R270.trans(v) shift_start = pya.DTrans(pya.DVector(point_2)) if term_len > 0: poly = pya.DPolygon( [ pya.DPoint(u * (a / 2 + b)), pya.DPoint(u * (a / 2 + b) + v * term_len), pya.DPoint(u * (-a / 2 - b) + v * term_len), pya.DPoint(u * (-a / 2 - b)), ] ) elem.cell.shapes(elem.layout.layer(elem.face(face_index)["base_metal_gap_wo_grid"])).insert( poly.transform(shift_start) ) # protection term_len += elem.margin poly2 = pya.DPolygon( [ pya.DPoint(u * (a / 2 + b + elem.margin)), pya.DPoint(u * (a / 2 + b + elem.margin) + v * term_len), pya.DPoint(u * (-a / 2 - b - elem.margin) + v * term_len), pya.DPoint(u * (-a / 2 - b - elem.margin)), ] ) elem.add_protection(poly2.transform(shift_start), face_index)
[docs] @staticmethod def is_continuous(waveguide_cell, annotation_layer, tolerance): """Returns true if the given waveguide is determined to be continuous, false otherwise. The waveguide is considered continuous if the endpoints of its every segment (except first and last) are close enough to the endpoints of neighboring segments. The waveguide segments are not necessarily ordered correctly when iterating through the cells using begin_shapes_rec. This means we must compare the endpoints of each waveguide segment to the endpoints of all other waveguide segments. Args: waveguide_cell: Cell of the waveguide. annotation_layer: unsigned int representing the annotation layer tolerance: maximum allowed distance between connected waveguide segments """ is_continuous = True # find the two endpoints for every waveguide segment endpoints = [] # endpoints of waveguide segment i are contained in endpoints[i][0] and endpoints[i][1] shapes_iter = waveguide_cell.begin_shapes_rec(annotation_layer) while not shapes_iter.at_end(): shape = shapes_iter.shape() if shape.is_path(): dtrans = shapes_iter.dtrans() # transformation from shape coordinates to waveguide_cell coordinates pts = shape.each_dpoint() first_point = dtrans * next(pts, None) last_point = first_point.dup() for pt in pts: last_point = pt last_point = dtrans * last_point endpoints.append([first_point, last_point]) # for every waveguide segment endpoint, try to find another endpoint which is close to it num_segments = len(endpoints) num_non_connected_points = 0 for i in range(num_segments): def find_connected_point(point): """Tries to find a waveguide segment endpoint close enough to the given point.""" found_connected_point = False for j in range(num_segments): # pylint: disable=cell-var-from-loop if i != j and ( point.distance(endpoints[j][1]) < tolerance or point.distance(endpoints[j][0]) < tolerance ): # print("{} | {} | {}".format(point, endpoints[j][1], endpoints[j][0])) found_connected_point = True break if not found_connected_point: nonlocal num_non_connected_points num_non_connected_points += 1 if endpoints[i][0].distance(endpoints[i][1]) != 0: # we ignore any zero-length segments find_connected_point(endpoints[i][0]) find_connected_point(endpoints[i][1]) # we can have up to 2 non-connected points, because ends of the waveguide don't have to be connected if num_non_connected_points > 2: is_continuous = False break return is_continuous