Source code for kqcircuits.chips.chip

# This code is part of KQCircuits
# Copyright (C) 2021 IQM Finland Oy
# This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public
# License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later
# version.
# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied
# warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.
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# ( IQM welcomes contributions to the code. Please see our contribution agreements
# for individuals ( and organizations (
# pylint: disable=R0904
# TODO: Consider refactoring to reduce number of public methods

import numpy
from autologging import logged

from kqcircuits.defaults import default_layers, default_junction_type, default_sampleholders, default_mask_parameters, \
    default_bump_parameters, default_marker_type
from kqcircuits.elements.chip_frame import ChipFrame
from kqcircuits.elements.element import Element
from kqcircuits.elements.launcher import Launcher
from kqcircuits.elements.launcher_dc import LauncherDC
from kqcircuits.pya_resolver import pya
from kqcircuits.util.merge import merge_layout_layers_on_face
from kqcircuits.util.parameters import Param, pdt, add_parameters_from, add_parameter
from kqcircuits.test_structures.junction_test_pads.junction_test_pads import JunctionTestPads
from kqcircuits.test_structures.stripes_test import StripesTest
from kqcircuits.util.groundgrid import make_grid
from kqcircuits.elements.tsvs.tsv import Tsv
from kqcircuits.elements.flip_chip_connectors.flip_chip_connector_dc import FlipChipConnectorDc
from kqcircuits.elements.flip_chip_connectors.flip_chip_connector_rf import FlipChipConnectorRf

[docs]@logged @add_parameters_from(Tsv, "tsv_type") @add_parameters_from(FlipChipConnectorRf, "connector_type") @add_parameter(ChipFrame, "box", hidden=True) @add_parameters_from(ChipFrame, "name_mask", "name_chip", "name_copy", "name_brand", "dice_grid_margin", marker_types=[default_marker_type] * 8) class Chip(Element): """Base PCell declaration for chips. Produces labels in pixel corners, dicing edge, markers and optionally grid for all chip faces. Contains methods for producing launchers in face 0 and connectors between faces 0 and 1. """ LIBRARY_NAME = "Chip Library" LIBRARY_DESCRIPTION = "Superconducting quantum circuit library for chips." LIBRARY_PATH = "chips" with_grid = Param(pdt.TypeBoolean, "Make ground plane grid", False) merge_base_metal_gap = Param(pdt.TypeBoolean, "Merge grid and other gaps into base_metal_gap layer", False) a_capped = Param(pdt.TypeDouble, "Capped center conductor width", 10, unit="μm", docstring="Width of center conductor in the capped region (μm)") b_capped = Param(pdt.TypeDouble, "Width of gap in the capped region ", 10, unit="μm") # Tsv grid parameters with_gnd_tsvs = Param(pdt.TypeBoolean, "Make ground TSVs", False) tsv_grid_spacing = Param(pdt.TypeDouble, "TSV grid distance (center to center)", 300, unit="μm") tsv_edge_to_tsv_edge_separation = \ Param(pdt.TypeDouble, "Ground TSV clearance to manually placed TSVs (edge to edge)", 250, unit="μm") tsv_edge_to_nearest_element = Param(pdt.TypeDouble, "Ground TSV clearance to other elements (edge to edge)", 100, unit="μm") edge_from_tsv = Param(pdt.TypeDouble, "Ground TSV center clearance to chip edge", 550, unit="μm") with_face1_gnd_tsvs = Param(pdt.TypeBoolean, "Make ground TSVs on the top face", False) with_gnd_bumps = Param(pdt.TypeBoolean, "Make ground bumps", False) bump_grid_spacing = Param( pdt.TypeDouble, "Bump grid distance (center to center)", default_bump_parameters['bump_grid_spacing'], unit="μm") bump_edge_to_bump_edge_separation = Param( pdt.TypeDouble, "In bump clearance to manually placed Bumps (edge to edge)", default_bump_parameters['bump_edge_to_bump_edge_separation'], unit="μm") edge_from_bump = Param(pdt.TypeDouble, "Spacing between bump and chip edge", default_bump_parameters['edge_from_bump'], unit="μm") frames_enabled = Param(pdt.TypeList, "List of face ids (integers) for which a ChipFrame is drawn", [0]) frames_marker_dist = Param(pdt.TypeList, "Marker distance from edge for each chip frame", [1500, 1000], unit="[μm]") frames_diagonal_squares = Param(pdt.TypeList, "Number of diagonal marker squares for each chip frame", [10, 2]) frames_mirrored = Param(pdt.TypeList, "List of booleans specifying if the frame is mirrored for each chip frame", [False, True]) frames_dice_width = Param(pdt.TypeList, "Dicing street width for each chip frame", [200, 140], unit="[μm]") face_boxes = Param( pdt.TypeShape, "List of chip frame sizes (type DBox) for each face. None uses the chips box parameter.", default=[None, pya.DBox(pya.DPoint(1500, 1500), pya.DPoint(8500, 8500))], hidden=True)
[docs] def display_text_impl(self): # Provide a descriptive text for the cell return "{}".format(self.name_chip)
[docs] def can_create_from_shape_impl(self): return self.shape.is_box()
[docs] def parameters_from_shape_impl(self): = pya.DBox(0, 0, self.shape.box_dwidth, self.shape.box_dheight)
[docs] def transformation_from_shape_impl(self): return pya.Trans(self.shape.box_p1)
[docs] @staticmethod def get_launcher_assignments(chip_cell): """Returns a dictionary of launcher assignments (port_id: launcher_id) for the chip. Args: chip_cell: Cell object of the chip """ launcher_assignments = {} for inst in chip_cell.each_inst(): port_name ="port_id") if port_name is not None: launcher_assignments[port_name] ="id") return launcher_assignments
[docs] def produce_junction_tests(self, junction_type=default_junction_type): """Produces junction test pads in the chip. Args: junction_type: A string defining the type of junction used in the test pads. """ junction_tests_w = self.add_element(JunctionTestPads, margin=50, area_height=1300, area_width=2500, junctions_horizontal=True, junction_type=junction_type, display_name="JunctionTestsHorizontal", ) junction_tests_h = self.add_element(JunctionTestPads, margin=50, area_height=2500, area_width=1300, junctions_horizontal=True, junction_type=junction_type, display_name="JunctionTestsVertical", ) self.insert_cell(junction_tests_h, pya.DTrans(0, False, .35e3, (10e3 - 2.5e3) / 2), "testarray_w") self.insert_cell(junction_tests_w, pya.DTrans(0, False, (10e3 - 2.5e3) / 2, .35e3), "testarray_s") self.insert_cell(junction_tests_h, pya.DTrans(0, False, 9.65e3 - 1.3e3, (10e3 - 2.5e3) / 2), "testarray_e") self.insert_cell(junction_tests_w, pya.DTrans(0, False, (10e3 - 2.5e3) / 2, 9.65e3 - 1.3e3), "testarray_n")
[docs] def produce_opt_lit_tests(self): """Produces optical lithography test stripes at chip corners.""" num_stripes = 20 length = 100 min_width = 1 max_width = 15 step = 3 first_stripes_width = 2 * num_stripes * min_width combined_cell = self.layout.create_cell("Stripes") for i, width in enumerate(numpy.arange(max_width + 0.1 * step, min_width, -step)): stripes_cell = self.add_element(StripesTest, num_stripes=num_stripes, stripe_width=width, stripe_length=length) # horizontal combined_cell.insert(pya.DCellInstArray(stripes_cell.cell_index(), pya.DCplxTrans(1, 0, False, -880, 2 * i * length + first_stripes_width - 200))) # vertical combined_cell.insert(pya.DCellInstArray(stripes_cell.cell_index(), pya.DCplxTrans(1, 90, False, 2 * i * length + length + first_stripes_width - 200, -880))) # diagonal diag_offset = 2 * num_stripes * width / numpy.sqrt(8) combined_cell.insert(pya.DCellInstArray(stripes_cell.cell_index(), pya.DCplxTrans(1, -45, False, 250 + i * length - diag_offset, 250 + i * length + diag_offset))) self.insert_cell(combined_cell, pya.DCplxTrans(1, 0, False, 1500, 1500)) self.insert_cell(combined_cell, pya.DCplxTrans(1, 90, False, 8500, 1500)) self.insert_cell(combined_cell, pya.DCplxTrans(1, 180, False, 8500, 8500)) self.insert_cell(combined_cell, pya.DCplxTrans(1, 270, False, 1500, 8500))
[docs] def produce_ground_grid(self): """Produces ground grid on all faces with ChipFrames. This method is called in build(). Override this method to produce a different set of chip frames. """ for face in self.frames_enabled: self.produce_ground_on_face_grid(self.get_box(int(face)), int(face))
[docs] def produce_ground_on_face_grid(self, box, face_id): """Produces ground grid in the given face of the chip. Args: box: pya.DBox within which the grid is created face_id (int): ID of the face where the grid is created """ grid_area = box * (1 / self.layout.dbu) protection = pya.Region(self.cell.begin_shapes_rec(self.get_layer("ground_grid_avoidance", face_id))).merged() grid_mag_factor = 1 region_ground_grid = make_grid(grid_area, protection, grid_step=10 * (1 / self.layout.dbu) * grid_mag_factor, grid_size=5 * (1 / self.layout.dbu) * grid_mag_factor) self.cell.shapes(self.get_layer("ground_grid", face_id)).insert(region_ground_grid)
[docs] def produce_frame(self, frame_parameters, trans=pya.DTrans()): """Produces a chip frame and markers for the given face. Args: frame_parameters: PCell parameters for the chip frame trans: DTrans for the chip frame, default=pya.DTrans() """ self.insert_cell(ChipFrame, trans, **frame_parameters)
[docs] def merge_layout_layers_on_face(self, face, tolerance=0.004): """Creates "base_metal_gap" layer on given face. The layer shape is combination of three layers using subtract (-) and insert (+) operations: "base_metal_gap" = "base_metal_gap_wo_grid" - "base_metal_addition" + "ground_grid" Args: face: face dictionary containing layer names as keys and layer info objects as values tolerance: gap length to be ignored while merging (µm) """ merge_layout_layers_on_face(self.layout, self.cell, face, tolerance)
[docs] def merge_layout_layers(self): """Creates "base_metal_gap" layers on all faces. The layer shape is combination of three layers using subtract (-) and insert (+) operations: "base_metal_gap" = "base_metal_gap_wo_grid" - "base_metal_addition" + "ground_grid" This method is called in build(). Override this method to produce a different set of chip frames. """ for i in range(len(self.face_ids)): self.merge_layout_layers_on_face(self.face(i))
[docs] def produce_structures(self): """Produces chip frame and possibly other structures before the ground grid. This method is called in build(). Override this method to produce a different set of chip frames. """ for i, face in enumerate(self.frames_enabled): face = int(face) frame_box = self.get_box(face) frame_parameters = self.pcell_params_by_name( ChipFrame, box=frame_box, face_ids=[self.face_ids[face]], use_face_prefix=len(self.frames_enabled) > 1, dice_width=float(self.frames_dice_width[i]), text_margin=default_mask_parameters[self.face_ids[face]]["text_margin"], marker_dist=float(self.frames_marker_dist[i]), diagonal_squares=int(self.frames_diagonal_squares[i]), marker_types=self.marker_types[i * 4:(i + 1) * 4] ) if str(self.frames_mirrored[i]).lower() == 'true': # Accept both boolean and string representation frame_trans = pya.DTrans( * pya.DTrans.M90 * pya.DTrans( else: frame_trans = pya.DTrans(0, 0) self.produce_frame(frame_parameters, frame_trans) if self.with_gnd_tsvs: self._produce_ground_tsvs(face_id=[0, 2]) if self.with_face1_gnd_tsvs: tsv_box = self.get_box(1).enlarged(pya.DVector(-self.edge_from_tsv, -self.edge_from_tsv)) self._produce_ground_tsvs(face_id=[3, 1], tsv_box=tsv_box) if self.with_gnd_bumps: self._produce_ground_bumps()
[docs] def get_box(self, face=0): """ Get the chip frame box for the specified face, correctly resolving defaults. Args: face: Integer specifying face, default 0 Returns: pya.DBox box for the specified face """ box = self.face_boxes[face] return box if box is not None else
[docs] def get_ground_bump_locations(self, bump_box): """ Define the locations for a grid. This method returns the full grid. Args: bump_box: DBox specifying the region that should be filled with ground bumps Returns: list of DPoint coordinates where a ground bump can be placed """ return self.make_grid_locations(bump_box, delta_x=self.bump_grid_spacing, delta_y=self.bump_grid_spacing)
def _produce_ground_bumps(self): """Produces ground bumps between bottom and top face. The bumps avoid ground grid avoidance on both faces, and keep a minimum distance to any existing (manually placed) bumps. """'Starting ground bump generation') bump = self.add_element(FlipChipConnectorDc) bump_box = self.get_box(1).enlarged(pya.DVector(-self.edge_from_bump, -self.edge_from_bump)) avoidance_layer_bottom = pya.Region( self.cell.begin_shapes_rec(self.get_layer("ground_grid_avoidance", 0))).merged() avoidance_layer_top = pya.Region( self.cell.begin_shapes_rec(self.get_layer("ground_grid_avoidance", 1))).merged() existing_bumps = pya.Region( self.cell.begin_shapes_rec(self.get_layer("indium_bump"))).merged() existing_bump_count = existing_bumps.count() avoidance_existing_bumps = existing_bumps.sized(self.bump_edge_to_bump_edge_separation / self.layout.dbu) existing_tsvs_bottom = pya.Region( self.cell.begin_shapes_rec(self.get_layer("through_silicon_via", 0))).merged() avoidance_existing_tsvs_bottom = existing_tsvs_bottom. \ sized((self.tsv_edge_to_nearest_element) / self.layout.dbu) existing_tsvs_top = pya.Region( self.cell.begin_shapes_rec(self.get_layer("through_silicon_via", 1))).merged() avoidance_existing_tsvs_top = existing_tsvs_top.sized(self.tsv_edge_to_nearest_element / self.layout.dbu) avoidance_region = (avoidance_layer_bottom + avoidance_layer_top + avoidance_existing_bumps + avoidance_existing_tsvs_bottom + avoidance_existing_tsvs_top).merged() locations = self.get_ground_bump_locations(bump_box) # Determine the shape of the bump from its underbump metallization layer. Assumes that when merged the bump # contains only one polygon. bump_size_polygon = next(pya.Region(bump.begin_shapes_rec(self.get_layer("underbump_metallization"))) .merged().each()) # Use pya.Region logic to efficiently filter bumps which are inside the allowed region test_object_region = pya.Region([bump_size_polygon.moved(pya.Vector(pos.to_itype(self.layout.dbu))) for pos in locations]) passed_object_region = test_object_region.outside(avoidance_region) bump_locations = [p.bbox().center().to_dtype(self.layout.dbu) for p in passed_object_region] for location in bump_locations: self.insert_cell(bump, pya.DTrans(location))'Found {existing_bump_count} existing bumps and inserted {len(bump_locations)} ground bumps, ' + f'totalling {existing_bump_count + len(bump_locations)} bumps.')
[docs] def post_build(self): self.produce_structures() if self.with_grid: self.produce_ground_grid() if self.merge_base_metal_gap: self.merge_layout_layers() self._produce_instance_name_labels()
def _produce_instance_name_labels(self): for inst in self.cell.each_inst(): inst_id ="id") if inst_id: cell = self.layout.create_cell("TEXT", "Basic", { "layer": default_layers["instance_names"], "text": inst_id, "mag": 400.0 }) label_trans = inst.dcplx_trans # prevent the label from being upside-down or mirrored if 90 < label_trans.angle < 270: label_trans.angle += 180 label_trans.mirror = False # optionally apply relative transformation to the label rel_label_trans_str ="label_trans") if rel_label_trans_str is not None: rel_label_trans = pya.DCplxTrans.from_s(rel_label_trans_str) label_trans = label_trans * rel_label_trans self.insert_cell(cell, label_trans)
[docs] def produce_launchers(self, sampleholder_type, launcher_assignments=None, enabled=None): """Produces launchers for typical sample holders and sets chip size (````) accordingly. This is a wrapper around ``produce_n_launchers()`` to generate typical launcher configurations. Args: sampleholder_type: name of the sample holder type launcher_assignments: dictionary of (port_id: name) that assigns a name to some of the launchers enabled: list of enabled launchers, empty means all Returns: launchers as a dictionary :code:`{name: (point, heading, distance from chip edge)}` """ if sampleholder_type == "SMA8": # this is special: it has default launcher assignments if not launcher_assignments: launcher_assignments = {1: "NW", 2: "NE", 3: "EN", 4: "ES", 5: "SE", 6: "SW", 7: "WS", 8: "WN"} if sampleholder_type in default_sampleholders: return self.produce_n_launchers(**default_sampleholders[sampleholder_type], launcher_assignments=launcher_assignments, enabled=enabled) return {}
[docs] def produce_n_launchers(self, n, launcher_type, launcher_width, launcher_gap, launcher_indent, pad_pitch, launcher_assignments=None, launcher_frame_gap=None, enabled=None, chip_box=None): """Produces n launchers at default locations and optionally changes the chip size. Launcher pads are equally distributed around the chip. This may be overridden by specifying the number of pads desired per chip side if ``n`` is an array of 4 numbers. Pads not in ``launcher_assignments`` are disabled by default. The ``enabled`` argument may override this. If neither argument is defined then all pads are enabled with default names. Args: n: number of launcher pads or an array of pad numbers per side launcher_type: type of the launchers, "RF" or "DC" launcher_width: width of the launchers launcher_gap: pad to ground gap of the launchers launcher_indent: distance between the chip edge and pad port pad_pitch: distance between pad centers launcher_frame_gap: gap of the launcher pad at the frame launcher_assignments: dictionary of (port_id: name) that assigns a name to some of the launchers enabled: optional list of enabled launchers chip_box: optionally changes the chip size (````) Returns: launchers as a dictionary :code:`{name: (point, heading, distance from chip edge)}` """ if launcher_frame_gap is None: launcher_frame_gap = launcher_gap if chip_box is not None: = chip_box if launcher_type == "DC": launcher_cell = self.add_element(LauncherDC, width=launcher_width) else: launcher_cell = self.add_element(Launcher, s=launcher_width, l=launcher_width, a_launcher=launcher_width, b_launcher=launcher_gap, launcher_frame_gap=launcher_frame_gap) pads_per_side = n if not isinstance(n, tuple): n = int((n + n % 4) / 4) pads_per_side = [n, n, n, n] dirs = (90, 0, -90, 180) trans = (pya.DTrans(3, 0,,, pya.DTrans(2, 0,,, pya.DTrans(1, 0,,, pya.DTrans(0, 0,, _w = - _h = - sides = [_w, _h, _w, _h] return self._insert_launchers(dirs, enabled, launcher_assignments, launcher_cell, launcher_indent, launcher_width, pad_pitch, pads_per_side, sides, trans)
def _insert_launchers(self, dirs, enabled, launcher_assignments, launcher_cell, launcher_indent, launcher_width, pad_pitch, pads_per_side, sides, trans): """Inserts launcher cell at predefined parameters and returns launcher cells """ port_id, launchers = 0, {} for np, dr, tr, si in zip(pads_per_side, dirs, trans, sides): for i in range(np): port_id += 1 if launcher_assignments: if port_id not in launcher_assignments: continue name = launcher_assignments[port_id] else: name = str(port_id) if enabled and name not in enabled: continue loc = tr * pya.DPoint(launcher_indent, si / 2 + pad_pitch * (i + 0.5 - np / 2)) launchers[name] = (loc, dr, launcher_width) transf = pya.DCplxTrans(1, dr, False, loc) launcher_inst, launcher_refpoints = self.insert_cell(launcher_cell, transf, name) launcher_inst.set_property("port_id", port_id) self.add_port(name, launcher_refpoints["port"]) return launchers
[docs] def make_grid_locations(self, box, delta_x=100, delta_y=100): # pylint: disable=no-self-use """ Define the locations for a grid. This method returns the full grid. Args: box: DBox specifying a region for a grid delta_x: Int or float specifying the grid separation along the x dimension delta_y: Int or float specifying the grid separation along the y dimension Returns: list of DPoint coordinates for the grid. """ # array size for bump creation n = int((box.p2 - box.p1).x / delta_x / 2) * 2 # force even number m = int((box.p2 - box.p1).y / delta_y / 2) * 2 # force even number locations = [] for i in numpy.linspace(-n / 2, n / 2, n + 1): for j in numpy.linspace(-m / 2, m / 2, m + 1): locations.append( + pya.DPoint(i * delta_x, j * delta_y)) return locations
[docs] def get_ground_tsv_locations(self, tsv_box): """ Define the locations for a grid. This method returns the full grid. Args: box: DBox specifying the region that should be filled with TSVs Returns: list of DPoint coordinates where a ground bump can be placed """ return self.make_grid_locations(tsv_box, delta_x=self.tsv_grid_spacing, delta_y=self.tsv_grid_spacing)
def _produce_ground_tsvs(self, face_id=[0, 2], tsv_box=None): # pylint: disable=dangerous-default-value """Produces ground TSVs between bottom and top face. The TSVs avoid ground grid avoidance on both faces, and keep a minimum distance to any existing (manually placed) TSVs. """'Starting ground TSV generation on face(s) {[self.face_ids[f_id] for f_id in face_id]}') tsv = self.add_element(Tsv, n=self.n, face_ids=[self.face_ids[f_id] for f_id in face_id]) # Determine the shape of the tsv from its through_silicon_via layer. Assumes that when merged the tsv # contains only one polygon. tsv_size_polygon = next(pya.Region(tsv.begin_shapes_rec(self.get_layer("through_silicon_via", face_id[0]))) .merged().each(), None) if tsv_size_polygon is None: tsv_size_polygon = next(pya.Region(tsv.begin_shapes_rec(self.get_layer("through_silicon_via", face_id[1]))) .merged().each(), None) if tsv_size_polygon is None: raise ValueError("No TSVs found on either face") if tsv_box is None: tsv_box =, -self.edge_from_tsv)) locations = self.get_ground_tsv_locations(tsv_box) locations_itype = [pya.Vector(pos.to_itype(self.layout.dbu)) for pos in locations] def region_from_layer(layer_name, f_id): return pya.Region(self.cell.begin_shapes_rec(self.get_layer(layer_name, f_id))).merged() avoidance_region = (region_from_layer("ground_grid_avoidance", face_id[0]) + region_from_layer("through_silicon_via_avoidance", face_id[0]) + region_from_layer("ground_grid_avoidance", face_id[1]) + region_from_layer("through_silicon_via_avoidance", face_id[1])).merged() avoidance_to_element_region = (region_from_layer("base_metal_gap_wo_grid", face_id[0]) + region_from_layer("indium_bump", face_id[0]) + region_from_layer("base_metal_gap_wo_grid", face_id[0]) + region_from_layer("indium_bump", face_id[1])).merged() avoidance_existing_tsv_region = region_from_layer("through_silicon_via", face_id[1]) existing_tsv_count = avoidance_existing_tsv_region.count() def filter_locations(filter_region, separation, input_locations): sized_tsv = tsv_size_polygon.sized(separation / self.layout.dbu) test_region = pya.Region([sized_tsv.moved(pos) for pos in input_locations]) test_region.merged_semantics = False pass_region = test_region.outside(filter_region) output_locations = [p.bbox().center() for p in pass_region] return output_locations locations_itype = filter_locations(avoidance_region, 0, locations_itype) locations_itype = filter_locations(avoidance_existing_tsv_region, self.tsv_edge_to_tsv_edge_separation, locations_itype) locations_itype = filter_locations(avoidance_to_element_region, self.tsv_edge_to_nearest_element, locations_itype) tsv_locations = [pos.to_dtype(self.layout.dbu) for pos in locations_itype] for location in tsv_locations: self.insert_cell(tsv, pya.DTrans(location))'Found {existing_tsv_count} existing TSVs and inserted {len(tsv_locations)} ground TSVs, ' + f'totalling {existing_tsv_count + len(tsv_locations)} TSVs.') return tsv_locations